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 بحث عن لقاح الانسولين باللغه الانكليزيه

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تاريخ التسجيل : 08/12/2010
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مُساهمةموضوع: بحث عن لقاح الانسولين باللغه الانكليزيه   الأحد مارس 13, 2011 12:41 pm

بحث عن الانسولين مفيد اللغه انجليزى



In diagnosing diabetes, physicians primarily depend upon the results of specific glucose tests. However, test results are just part of the information that goes into the diagnosis of diabetes. Doctors also take into account your physical exam, presence or absence of symptoms, and medical history. Some people who are significantly ill will have transient problems with elevated blood sugars which will then return to normal after the illness has resolved. Also, some medications may alter your blood glucose levels (most commonly steroids and certain diuretics (water pills)). The two main tests used to measure the presence of blood sugar problems are [1] the direct measurement of glucose levels in the blood during an overnight fast, and [2] measurement of the body's ability to appropriately handle the excess sugar presented after drinking a high glucose drink.

[1] Fasting Blood Glucose (Blood Sugar) Level:
The "gold standard" for diagnosing diabetes is an elevated blood sugar level after an overnight fast (not eating anything after midnight). A value above 140 mg/dl on at least two occasions typically means a person has diabetes. Normal people have fasting sugar levels that generally run between 70-110 mg/dl.

[2] The Oral Glucose Tolerance Test
An oral glucose tolerance test is one that can be performed in a doctor's office or a lab. The person being tested starts the test in a fasting state (having no food or drink except water for at least 10 hours but not greater than 16 hours). An initial blood sugar is drawn and then the person is given a "glucola" bottle with a high amount of sugar in it (75 grams of glucose), (or 100 grams for pregnant women). The person then has their blood tested again 30 minutes, 1 hour, 2 hours and 3 hours after drinking the high glucose drink.
For the test to give reliable results, you must be in good health (not have any other illnesses, not even a cold). Also, you should be normally active (for example, not lying down or confined to a bed like a patient in a hospital) and taking no medicines that could affect your blood glucose. The morning of the test, you should not smoke or drink coffee. During the test, you need to lie or sit quietly.
The oral glucose tolerance test is conducted by measuring blood glucose levels five times over a period of 3 hours. In a person without diabetes, the glucose levels in the blood rise following drinking the glucose drink, but then then fall quickly back to normal (because insulin is produced in response to the glucose, and the insulin has a normal effect of lowing blood glucose.) In a diabetic, glucose levels rise higher than normal after drinking the glucose drink and come down to normal levels much slower (insulin is either not produced, or it is produced but the cells of the body do not respond to it) (see details on type 1 and type 2 diabetes for more information on this topic).
tolerAs with fasting or random blood glucose tests, a markedly abnormal oral glucose ance test isdiagnostic of diabetes. However, blood glucose measurements during the oral glucose tolerance test can vary somewhat. For this reason, if the test shows that you have mildly elevated blood glucose levels, the doctor may run the test again to make sure the diagnosis is correct.

Glucose tolerance tests may lead to one of the following diagnoses:
Normal Response
A person is said to have a normal response when the 2-hour glucose level is less than or equal to 110 mg/dl.
Impaired Fasting Glucose
When a person has a fasting glucose equal to or greater than 110 and less than 126 mg/dl, they are said to have impaired fasting glucose. This is considered a risk factor for future diabetes, and will likely trigger another test in the future, but by itself, does not make the diagnosis of diabetes.
Impaired Glucose Tolerance
A person is said to have impaired glucose tolerance when the 2-hour glucose results from the oral glucose tolerance test are greater than or equal to 140 but less than 200 mg/dl. This is also considered a risk factor for future diabetes. There has recently been discussion about lowering the upper value to 180 mg/dl to diagnose more mild diabetes to allow earlier intervention and hopefully prevention of diabetic complications.
Diabetes
A person has diabetes when oral glucose tolerance tests show that the blood glucose level at 2 hours is equal to or more than 200 mg/dl. This must be confirmed by a second test (any of the three) on another day. There has recently been discussion about lowering the upper value to 180 mg/dl to diagnose more people with mild diabetes to allow earlier intervention and hopefully prevention of diabetic complications.
Gestational Diabetes
A woman has gestational diabetes when she is pregnant and has any two of the following: a fasting plasma glucose of more than 105 mg/dl, a 1-hour glucose level of more than 190 mg/dl, a 2-hour glucose level of more than 165 mg/dl, or a 3-hour glucose level of more than 145 mg/dl.

plan. .............................. .....






Symptoms of Hyperglycemia
The signs and symptoms which suggest the presence of high blood sugar

The basic defect in all patients with diabetes is the decreased ability of insulin to induce cells of the body to remove glucose (sugar) molecules from the blood. Whether this decreased insulin activity is due to a decreased amount of insulin produced (e.g. Type I Diabetes), or from the insensitivity of the cells to a normal amount of insulin, the results are the same...blood glucose levels which are too high. This is termed "hyperglycemia" which means "high glucose in the blood".
Note: hyper = high, glyc = glucose, and emia = of the blood.


Common Symptoms of Hyperglycemia
The Classic Symptoms
Other Symptoms Might Include
Polyphagia (frequently hungry)
Blurred vision
Polyuria (frequently urinating)
Fatigue
Polydipsia (frequently thirsty)
Weight loss

Poor wound healing (cuts, scrapes, etc.)

Dry mouth

Dry or itchy skin

Impotence (male)

Recurrent infections such as vaginal yeast infections, groin rash, or external ear infections (swimmers ear)


It is important to remember that not everyone with diabetes will have all these symptoms. In fact, many people with Type 2 diabetes may not have any of them.


Treatment of Diabetes

There are several aspects in the treatment of diabetes, each one with a very important role.
The mainstays of treatment are:
1. Working towards obtaining ideal body weight
2. Following a diabetic diet
3. Regular exercise
4. Diabetic medication if needed
Note: Type 1 Diabetes must be treated with insulin. This involves injecting insulin under the skin for it to work. Insulin cannot be taken as a pill because the digestive juices in the stomach would destroy the insulin before it could work. Scientists are looking for new ways to give insulin. But today, shots are the only method. There are, however, new methods to give the shots...Insulin Pumps are now being widely used and many people are having great results. A new page on insulin pumps will be on line soon.

Working towards obtaining ideal body weight.
An estimate of ideal body weight can be calculated using this formula:
For women: Start with 100 pounds for 5 feet tall. Add 5 pounds for every inch over 5 feet. (If you are under 5 feet, subtract 5 pounds for each inch under 5 feet). This will give you your ideal weight. If you have a large frame, add 10 percent. If you have a small frame, subtract ten percent. ( A good way to decide your frame size is to look at your wrist size compared to other women's)
Example: a woman who is 5' 4" tall and has a large frame.
100 pounds + 20 pounds (4 inches times 5 pounds per inch) =120 pounds.
Add 10% for large frame (in this case 10% of 120 pounds is 12 pounds).
120 pounds + 12 pounds = 142 pounds ideal body weight.

For men: Start with 106 pounds for a height of 5 foot. Add 6 pounds for
every inch above 5 foot. For a large frame, add 10%. For a
small frame, subtract 10 percent. (See above for further details).


The Diabetic Diet
Diet is very important in diabetes. There are differing philosophies on what is the BEST diet but below is a guideline with some general principles.
Patients with Type 1 diabetes should have a diet that has approximately 35 calories per kg of body weight per day (or 16 calories per pound of body weight per day). Patients with Type 2 diabetes generally are put on a 1500-1800 calorie diet per day to promote weight loss and then the maintenance of ideal body weight.. However, this may vary depending on the person's age, sex, activity level, current weight and body style. More obese individuals may need more calories initially until their weight is less. This is because it takes more calories to maintain a larger body and a 1600 calorie diet for them may promote weight loss that is too fast to be healthy. Men have more muscle mass in general and therefore may require more calories. Muscle burns more calories per hour than fat. (Thus also one reason to regularly exercise and build up muscle!) Also, people whose activity level is low will have less daily caloric needs.
Generally, carbohydrates should make up about 50 percent of the daily calories ( with the accepted range 40-60 percent). In general, lower carbohydrate intake is associated with lower sugar levels in the blood. However the benefits of this can be cancelled out by the problems associated with a higher fat diet taken in to compensate for the lower amount of carbohydrates.. This problem can be improved by substituting monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fats for saturated fats.
Most people with diabetes find that it is quite helpful to sit down with a dietician or nutritionist for a consult about what is the best diet for them and how many daily calories they need. It is quite important for diabetics to understand the principles of carbohydrate counting and how to help control blood sugar levels through proper diet. Below are some general principles about the diabetic diet.
Understanding Food Groups
There are three basic food groups: fats, proteins and carbohydrates. The carbohydrates are the foods that can be broken down into sugar. It is essential to have all three food groups in your diet to have good nutrition.
1. Why count carbohydrates?
Carbohydrate makes your blood glucose level go up. If you know how much carbohydrate you've eaten, you have a good idea what your blood glucose level is going to do. The more carbohydrates you eat, the higher your blood sugar will go up.
2. Which foods contain carbohydrate?
Most of the carbohydrate we eat comes from three food groups: starch, fruit and milk. Vegetables also contain some carbohydrates, but foods in the meat and fat groups contain very little carbohydrate. Sugars may be added or may be naturally present (such as in fruits). The nutrient term for sugars can also be identified by looking for -ose at the end of a word ( i.e. glucose, fructose, sucrose, etc. are all sugars). Look for these on food labels to help identify foods that contain sugar.

Below are some examples of carbohydrate grams for some common food items:
Food
Amount
Carb grams
Food
Amount
Carb grams
1 % fat milk
1 cup
12
yogurt fruited
1 cup
40
Bran Chex
2/3 cup
23
yogurt fruit
1 cup
19
Frosted Flakes
3/4 cup
26
Raisin Bran
3/4 cup
28
fruit juice
1/2 cup
15
bread/toast
1 slice
15
banana
1/2
15
sugar
1 tsp.
4
pancake syrup
2 Tbsp.
30
pancakes - 4
2
15
low-fat granola
1/2 cup
30
sugar-free syrup
2 Tbsp.
4
bars or graham crackers and substitute it for another carbohydrates on your meal






2 Tbsp.
To make things easy, many people begin carbohydrate counting byrounding the carbohydrate value of milk up to 15. In other words, one serving of starch, fruit or milk all contain 15 grams carbohydrate or one carbohydrate serving. Three servings of vegetable also contain 15 grams. Each meal and snack will contain a specific total number of grams of carbohydrate.
For example: Each gram of carbohydrate provides 4 calories. A diabetic on a 1600 calorie diet should get 50% of these calories from carbohydrate. This would be a total of 800 calories or 200 gms of carbohydrate (at 4 calories per gram) spread out over the day. At 15 grams per exchange, this would be about 13 exchanges of carbohydrate per day.
The amount of food you eat is closely related to blood sugar control. If you eat more food than is recommended on your meal plan, your blood sugar goes up. Although foods containing carbohydrate (carb) have the most impact on blood sugars, the calories from all foods will affect blood sugar. The only way you can tell if you are eating the right amount is to measure your foods carefully. Also, it is important to space your carbohydrates out throughout the day to avoid sugar "loading." Measuring your blood sugar regularly also provides important feedback on how high your sugar went ****************************** **********d on what you ate and your level of activity.
Where do you get carbohydrate information?
The "Nutrition Facts" label on most foods is the best way to get carbohydrate information, but not all foods have labels. Your local bookstore and library have books that list the carbohydrate in restaurant foods, fast foods, convenience foods and fresh foods. You will still need to weigh or measure the foods to know the amount of grams of carbohydrates present.
How do you count carbohydrate?
Carbohydrates can be counted in number of grams or can be counted as exchanges. One carbohydrate exchange equals 15 grams of carbohydrate. A good reference for learning how to count calories in this manner will be on line here
soon including a calorie computer.
Free Foods:
These are foods that you can eat without counting. A free food or drink is one that contains less than 20 calories and 5 grams or less of carbohydrate per serving. If your serving or a food contains more than 5 grams of carbohydrate, you should count it in your meal plan.
Examples of free foods:
Bouillon or broth
Carbonated or mineral water
Club soda
Coffee or tea
Diet soft drinks
Drink mixes, sugar-free
Tonic water, sugar free
Sugar-free hard candy
Sugar-free Jell-O
Sugar-free gum
Jam or jelly, light or low-sugar, 2 tsp.
Sugar free syrup, 2 tsp.
You should spread out free foods throughout the day and not eat them in one sitting.
Fitting Sugar in Your Meal Plan
It is commonly thought that people with diabetes should avoid all forms of sugar. Most people with diabetes can eat foods containing sugar as long as the total amount of carbohydrate (carb) for that meal or snack is consistent. Many research studies have shown that meals which contain sugar do not make the blood sugar rise higher than meals of equal carbohydrate levels which do not contain sugar. However, if the sugar-containing meal contains more carb, the blood sugar levels will go up.
Does this mean I can eat cake and not worry about it?
No! A slice of white cake with chocolate icing ( 1/12 of a cake or 80 gram weight) will give you about 300 calories, 45 grams of carb and 12 grams of fat. That is three starch servings and over 2 fat servings. Before you have a slice of cake, ask yourself the following questions: Will that small piece of cake be satisfying or will I still be hungry? How it will fit into my meal plan? Do I have 300 calories to "spend" on this? Are there other choices I could make which would contribute less fat? A 1/12 slice of angel food cake has less than 1 gram of fat and only 30 carb. This may be a better choice.
Controlling all carbohydrates
It is important to realize that sugar is not the only carbohydrate that you have to "control". The body will convert all carbohydrates to glucose - so eating extra servings of rice, pasta, bread, fruit or other carbohydrate foods will make the blood sugar rise. Just because something doesn't have sugar in it doesn't mean you can eat as much as you want. Your meal plan is designed so that the carbohydrate ****************************** ********** of your meals remains as consistent as possible from day to day.
A word of caution:
Although sugar does not cause the blood sugar to rise any higher than other carbohydrates, it should be eaten along with other healthy foods. If you choose to drink a 12 ounce can of a sugar-sweetened soft drink, that would use up about 45 grams carb - and you wouldn't have gotten any nutrition (protein, vitamins or minerals). What a waste of calories! High sugar foods are more concentrated in carb. Therefore the volume would be smaller than a low sugar food. High sugar foods might not be a good choice if they will just tempt you to eat more. If you would rather eat larger portions, select low sugar choices. Look at the differences in portion size you get for equal amounts of carbohydrate in these cereals!
Granola
Frosted Flakes
Corn Flakes
Cheerios
Puffed Wheat
1/4 cup
1/3 cup
3/4 cup
1 cup
1 1/4 cup
In addition, many sugar-containing foods also contain a lot of fat. Foods such as ****************************** ****************************** s, pastries, ice cream and cakes should be avoided largely because of the fat ****************************** ****************************** ********** and because they don't contribute much nutritional value. If you do want a "sweet" - make a low-fat choice, such as low-fat frozen yogurt, gingersnaps, fig bars or graham crackers and substitute it for another carbohydrates
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بحث عن لقاح الانسولين باللغه الانكليزيه
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